African Americans have weathered administrative storms for centuries by working within the prevailing American politico-military arena and outside of it; in almost all cases activists have articulated a socio-political vision that minimized the damage of U.S. and corporate hegemony both within the western hemisphere and on the general world scene. From maroon rebellions to the arguments of Richard Allen in the 18th century, the movement to Canada, Mexico or back to Africa in the 19th century, and the arguments between DuBois, Garvey and Washington in the 20th century, Black politics has been profoundly concerned with itself and the darker world. It was early recognized that an educated public was the key to Pan-African success. All major Civil Rights and Nationalist Organizations had education wings. The 19th century saw educational coalitions form. One example was the Philadelphia-based Banneker Institute, which debated such issues as whether the "downfall of the Republic of the United States" would be good for African Americans, and celebrated West Indian Emancipation Day.1 From the Niagara Movement forward, part of the Pan-African goal has been to make Black citizens in the Western Hemisphere aware of global events. The UNIA defined Pan-Africanism as "the coming together for the common good of all African people in the Diaspora and in the homeland."2 The Association for the Study of Classical African Civilizations fulfills that mission by conducting study tours, supporting alternative schools, and working with educators in the public school system to bring about an African-centered curriculum.
The United States has had multiple political ideologies and social movements, starting from the states' rights debate that continued through the 1960's, to the current debate over healthcare and the correctness of the War on Terrorism. This war can be looked at in several ways. George W. Bush called it a 'Crusade;' Dick Cheney, Condoleezza Rice and multiple members of the Bush Administration seems to simply consider it a way to cheat the American public via Enron and the military supplier- masquerading as an engine of Hurricane relief- Halliburton; and the public is told that it is a 'clash of civilizations' that ironically includes 'fanatics' from Somalia, Southern Africa and Sudan.
One of the most troubling points of the 'Crusade' is its extension into the U.S. educational arena, and in the post-9/11 arena, an interesting array of budding and established scholars has been labeled anti-Israeli, anti-American, and addicted to "victimology."3 Jacob Carruthers and Anderson Thompson summed up African studies scholars into three categories: the Old Scrappers, the "Negro Intellectual" integrationists; and those who are "Progressive Extensions of the Old Scrappers."4 All of these authors argued or argue that Western, "Oriental" and African religio-historiography pointed to an African, and specifically Nile, origin of the Torah, New Testament, Qur'an, and Western philosophy. As a result, many of these scholars were or have been moved outside of academia, or relegated to assistant posts, first for "amateurish" scholarship and later for "racist" comments.5
ASCAC's founders were Drs. Jacob H. Carruthers, Maulana Karenga, Yosef ben-Jochannan, Asa G. Hilliard III, Leonard Jeffries and John Henrik Clarke. All of these men taught at the post-secondary level; some taught at Ivy League schools, others at state and city colleges; two taught at institutes with specifically African orientations. ASCAC's goals are limited to the research of African civilizations, particularly during the "Golden Age of the Nile Valley."
Development of a long range international research strategy based
upon a multidisciplinary approach to the study of African civilizations.
Archeological and linguistic projects will be features of this approach.
[ASCAC, "objective one"]
Development of an international educational agenda and
dissemination of educational material and study guides for
the study of African civilizations.
[ASCAC, "objective two"]
These scholars not only took up the history, anthropology, and language of Africa in general and Egypt/Kemet in particular, but have worked to show the links between art, math and spirituality. They have embraced female scholars and expressed a profound respect for both the study of the feminine in African spirituality and the women in their own families.6 The current president of ASCAC is a woman and that seems to be part of the reason for the strong focus on elementary education that has included textbooks, tours to Africa, and a series of colloquia.7
ASCAC has a diverse membership. Hebrew Israelites, Women in Support of the Million Man March, Womanists/Feminists, Muslims, Panthers, UNIA members, Afro-Christians, and those professing African spiritual traditions, particularly from Ghana and Egypt, support the Association. Its study includes a wide range of topics relevant to the contemporary black experience.8 For this reason, it is an anchor in the ongoing Black struggle, as ben-Jochannan's presence at the Millions More Movement showed.
Our strategy is to use our accumulated knowledge for the
liberation of African people wherever they may be.
[ASCAC, "our purpose"]
Liberating African people has not come without a struggle, from both Black critics, 'white males,' and the teachers in public classrooms, many of whom are white females.9 Afrocentrists' work has been criticized by African scholars as being Afrocentric in name only, more concerned with the self-esteem of those Africans sold and stolen into the Maafa (Middle Passage). Other historians have been accused of generalizing the continent, attempting to find unity where there is none, promoting reverse racism, romanticizing a non-black people (the Egyptians), or continuing the arrogant school of Afro-American superiority/African inferiority.10
[Diaspora Africans] should share their hard-won wisdom
with the less sophisticated people [of] the African continent.
Asante couches his argument in terms of liberation, but his
thinking is profoundly indebted to the most repugnant myths
African critics, at least, seem to have missed the point- at least those who either justify or ignore African culpability in the trade which sent the ancestors of America's 'arrogant' and 'dis-connected' African descended peoples to the Western Hemisphere.12 The education system of the Western world focuses upon a presumption of African and Indigenous inferiority, in particular, and non-white European anti-intellectualism in general. The best educated Afro-American, in the traditional sense, would come away with a certainty that the philosophies of the Greek traditions flowered fully in the Western European societies and would be useful only in arguing whether the British, French, Spanish or Portuguese were the most civilized. Even those educated in the sciences- which should be neutral and based entirely upon observation- would have their views clouded by the philosopher-scientists who formulated the doctrine of "'white' supremacy." That Afro-American scholars fought for the elevation of Africa in the face of Biblical misinterpretation, anti-Black exegeses, and bizarre socio-scientific theories, such as Social Darwinism, speaks to the love of Africa that remained within its deported peoples.13
The Effects Of Gobineau And other Anti-Black Scholars
The better-educated classes might be expected to delegate travesties such as have occurred in Abu Ghraib and Guantanamo. However, one would certainly expect sororities such as Daughters of the American Revolution to take up the white [wo]man's burden, and continue to challenge African-descended men and women in the domestic media and classroom long after Marian Anderson.14 Nancy Prince and Mary Seacole agreed that white women's anti-Black sentiments were a problem more than a century ago. Mary Seacole experienced vehement racism from white women, one of whom spat on her when she took her rightful place; she also witnessed the hostage-taking of black children by white women in order to force their mothers to take beatings.15 No other behavior could have resulted from Gobineau's political theories on "The Separation of Races." This disconnect between Afro and white American continues to this day, particularly over the issues of U.S. history and colonial policy. On the one hand, there are those who teach that Africans in the Americas were childish and enjoyed slavery, had no sense of irony, nor anger:
When missus Newman got mad enough ter scold any of us,
she had good cause to do it. Jest lak anybody whippin' deir chillums,
dey don't whip dem unless dey needs it, and don't whip dem lots of times
when dey do needs it. Dat was de way Missus Newman was by us slaves,
and she sho' was good and kind when any of us got sick.16
While Slave-owner Mary Jones reported the expectation that some of her servants would stay on the plantation, though frustrated by their disinterest in continuing to toil for no pay, she was outraged and even unbelieving that some of her house servants left as fast as possible:
"The people are all idle on plantations, most of them seeking
their own pleasure. Many servants have proven faithful, others false
and rebellious against all authority or restraint. Susan, a Virginia
negro and nurse to my little Mary Ruth, went off with Mac, her husband,
to Arcadia the night after the first day the Yankees appeared, with whom
she took every opportunity of conversing, informing them that the baby's
father was Colonel Jones. She has acted a faithless part as soon as she
could. Porter left three weeks since, and has never returned to give to
give any report of Patience or himself or anyone at Arcadia.17
We are asked to believe that in the Slave Narratives, the freedmen and women displayed a "surprising lack of anger."18 However, the experiences of Jack Johnson, Dorothy Dandridge, and even Josephine Baker, belie this. Faced with contradictory facts, in which she is told that white women were either maternal or, astonishingly, routinely stood up for enslaved women and men, it is unsurprising that white mothers, daughters and sisters may sometimes seek to destroy places in which there are actually Black people on this earth who may not worship her:
In the Arabian Nights- a book which though apparently trivial,
is a mine of true sayings and well-observed facts- we read that
some Negroes regard Adam and his wife are black, and since they
are created in the image of God, God must also be black.19
Without accumulated knowledge of Pan-African historians, and awareness of the global struggle against "white" cultural hegemony, African American public figures have sometimes had to rely upon information that may have been incomplete, or defined by current political pressures. Even the best-placed and best-meaning African American powerhouses can make tragic mistakes. In the social arena, Oprah Winfrey has been burned by the false accusations about Muslim women. Moving from the continuing conversation on clitoral excision across the African and Middle Eastern cultures, to female education, she has consistently been pro-West. In her enthusiasm to point out the benefits of living in America, Oprah had on a woman from the Revolutionary Afghan Women's Association asking for help against the Taliban, some of whom were reportedly of African descent. Unfortunately, African-born Taliban fighters in Afghanistan's history were not touched upon in the introduction to the section. Worse, Oprah's discussion missed the fact that Afghan women from the same organization would rather have had the Taliban than the Northern Alliance, a party which the U.S. attempted to put into power.
Recalling the period from 1992 to 1996 when the groups that
now comprise the Northern Alliance vied for power after the fall
of the Soviet-installed Najibullah regime, Tahmeena said, "Afghans
know the Northern Alliance." They remember their years of control,
she said, as a time when women were raped en masse and young girls
were forced into marriages with military commanders. Thousands were
killed and tortured. "We don't want that period back," she says. 20
The Taliban Ambassador claimed on NPR that the leadership had no intention of keeping women from education, but that instead, under the conditions in war-torn Afghanistan, they had to remove them from public sight.21 What effect this may have had upon African-descended people, including the families of those reportedly African jihadists, was not discussed. It was sufficient to vilify them as 'anti-American' and 'anti-women' without consideration of the same historical factors in this country. It seems that without excellent knowledge of the African Diaspora, and sources of information that respect indigenous traditions, political and historical events in multiple regions of 'the Old World, African American social activists, of any persuasion, can be badly burned.
Hundreds of pro-Taliban Pakistani fighters were systematically
massacred in the northern city of Mazar-i-Sharif after being callously
abandoned by retreating Taliban fighters. The Taliban soldiers fled
from Mazar on Nov.9, 2001 but failed to inform a contingent of up to
1,200 Pakistani jihadis that they were leaving. Northern Alliance troops
trapped the Pakistanis in Sultan Razia school on the outskirts of the city
and then shot hundreds of them.22
Unfortunately, such works as 'The Bell Curve,' 'World on Fire,' and others, continue to be published by well-educated persons hell-bent upon proving that African-descended peoples are either savage, ungrateful or unintelligent. If the Afro-American Nationalist agenda of the 1960's had one weakness, it was a twisted self-deception that argued against the world-wide attacks of white men and boys, without addressing the mothers, sisters, wives and daughters who taught, supported, and promoted the doctrine of black, red, yellow, and brown inferiority. Since the nineties and the rise of vocal Womanists/Black Feminists, that idea has come under greater scrutiny.
… while white males have been in the forefront of European
imperialism… [w]hite women and by extension white families
have also been participants in and rewarded by the oppression of others23
Diasporian Leadership And Self-Oppression
Certainly, those leaders who took part in the successful National Organizing Committees for the post-90 Black-oriented marches worked out of their alliances at the earlier Pan-African Congresses. For example, the 1970 Congress of African People included a wide range of political points-of view.
Whitney Young, executive director of the National Urban League, to
Democratic party politicians such as Rev. Ralph Abernathy and
Rev. Jesse Jackson; representatives of the Diaspora such as Roosevelt
Douglas of Dominica… and Minister Louis Farrakhan of the Nation of Islam24
As such, the anti-intellectual bent of some Afro-American political leadership is hard to understand, even in light of extreme sexist and religious points of view. The breakdown of the Local Organizing committees, and the repeated publications of similar facts by competing organizations- such as the post-Million Man March, National Agenda, and the recent Covenant with Black America certainly can point to a failure in Black political leadership. Minister Farrakhan, for example, is so critical of intellectuals that he and his officials have rejected scholars who stated that Black people once created a car; that we have had African-American astronauts; that Nuns might actually have devoted their productive lives to God; that Paul Robeson, Mahalia Jackson, Maya Angelou, Marian Anderson inspired. Ironically, Elijah Muhammad, his teacher stated that with the coming of Islam, mental slavery was over.
Our Black people were brought up by the enemy, white man,
who did not want us to ever know anything about Islam, because
once the black slave learned Islam, He would never be a slave
The slavemasters children's blood, heart, and way of thinking toward
the once slave is the same as their fathers.26
Unfortunately, the beliefs in 'white-boy' smart espoused by our political, and aspiring political, leadership continues. This is apparently the reason that ancient African civilizations and non-slave African-descended diasporans receive so little Black media attention.
[[Minister Farrakhan] added that his teacher, the
Hon. Elijah Muhammad, told his followers to study the history
of the Jewish people because it is full of lessons for Blacks in
America who have suffered a 400-year bondage "unlike the slavery
of other human beings."
"After 400 years, (God) gave them Moses, the liberator," he said.
"And we, too, believe that Allah has been merciful to us and it is our
time now to come out of exile, but it is also your time as well. 27
It seems that even in light of the Joseph Project, ASCAC, the Kemetic Institute, NSBE, TVONE, and the Million Family March, of October 16, 2000, African-Diasporan leadership retains contradictory beliefs abut the worth of Black women, men, girls and boys.
The Fight To Establish Africa-Centered Education
Tony Martin expresses a contemporary politico-historical idea, when he suggests that the term 'African diaspora' should not be used because it perpetuates the idea of the African as interdependent upon the definitions of other people, in this case, specifically European Jews. He suggests that 'dispersed,' 'uprooted,' or 'scattered' Africa and better terms which keep the Black public loyal to the plight of African peoples. Unlike Drake, who sees back to Africa as the minority view, Martin discusses Pan-Africanism as a perpetual undercurrent in African American thought. Aspects could be found in African American movements from the UNIA, Nation of Islam and sixty-five thousand strong Liberian exodus association of South Carolina.
The UNIA, as the most successful, affected multiple parts of the Atlantic Diaspora and the Continent. The UNIA program, which came out of Marcus Garvey's study of Edward Wilmot Blyden among others, emphasized race, self-reliance and nationhood.28 It probably came out of sentiments such as those expressed by Pete Johnson, who took his wife and who left the evil of Reconstruction life as fast as possible. Having worked with Mrs. Ross who attempted to degrade him as 'only a nigger.':
My wife and I put up with [a terrible woman who kept pistols, guns,
and other firearms around, in all rooms and even threatened them with
a whipping house] for a week, and couldn't stand it any longer.
Mrs. Ross wouldn't furnish any conveyance for our trunk, which was all
we had taken with us."
He and his wife, "afraid of getting shot to death," gathered either end of the trunk carrying their worldly goods, and left after asking for their hard earned wages, which were refused, on a flimsy pretext of a contract.29
There were 1,100 branches in over forty countries; a delegation was sent to the 1922 League of Nations, forerunner of the UN; it was tied to various union movements in the West Indies and Africa; and the UNIA influenced the thought of Jomo Kenyatta, Ernest Ikoli (Nigeria), and Elijah Muhammad. In fact The Honorable Elijah Muhammad was supported by UNIA Liberty Halls and African-American freemasons.30
The Modern Intellectual Star Wars:
El Hajji Malik El Shabazz (Malcolm X), Whitney Young, Mark Clarke, Kwame Ture, Henry Louis Gates, Cornell West, and Jesse Jackson have all been killed physically or mentally beaten down. Thus, African American educators, politicians, and parents, would do well to keep in mind Dr. Anderson Thompson's saying: we are engaged in an intellectual "Star Wars." In spite of the work of well-qualified African-descended scholars, very few Black scholars show confidence in the Black origins of African societies or Western history.
Considering that the international colloquium held in Cairo,
Egypt in January, 1974, under UNESCO sponsorship, unanimously
confirmed the fact that Pharaonic Kemet (Egypt) was African, on the
basis of ethnic composition, its culture, its language, its
written script, and its ways of thinking;31
Afrocentric, Pan-African, and even pro-Western" historians have to be aware of the competing doctrines which form the bedrock of National policy. For example, business theories on successful races come out of a social Darwinist thought. Even supposed fringe beliefs must be looked at because a surprising number of educated people have ascribed to them. Or they may have been presented as legitimate explanations of African history. The writings of H.P. Blavatsky, 32 Arya Samaj, the Hymns to Indra in the Rig Veda, until better translated, and the idea of a "White Goddess" in Grimaldi Europe must be acknowledged because such beliefs influence popular science, including the Geographic and Scientific cable TV programming. Their effects can particularly be seen in terms of what went wrong in U.S. Education, the 'browning' of African history, and the 'dumbing down' of American history.33
The apocalyptic fight against Ivan Van Sertima's theses are a perfect example. In six journals,34 he and a broad range of scholars argued that not only were the Olmecs Black, but other pre-Columbian African peoples came to the Americas; these were not slaves, but sailors, merchants and navigators long before Western Europe was capable of voyages. Specific arguments included that African-descended people led Eric the Red to Canada, and that America's potential 'Black population' included enslaved Asians, especially due especially a trade into the Americas from the Philippines into Mexico, the destruction of the Easter Islanders, and Thor Heyerdal's proof that Egyptians actually got to the Americas on the Ra Expeditions (in 1969-70). In spite of extensive references photos and linguistic arguments, his work was attacked as unprofessional, amateur and without foundation. Yet we see talk shows and popular programs promote the idea of outer space origins of the Egyptians and Zulu and the reliance upon forensic artists to prove Africanness. As Von Danniken suggested, extreme proponents of African inferiority may yet make themselves a spaceship and pretend to have come from outer space.35
William Bosman was being political when he said:
In the Beginning God created Black as well as white man, and they tell us that God having created these two sets of men and that [Blacks], chose gold and left the knowledge of letters to whites. God granted their request but being incensed at their avarice, resolved that the whites should for ever be their masters and that they were obligated to wait on them as slaves.36
Such statements have continued to repeat throughout recent history. The statements of Dinesh D'Souza about, "a civil rights establishment that has a vested interest in perpetuating black dependency," affirmative action, multi-culturalism, the good in British-colonialism and other issues:
Dinesh D'Souza argues that by charging universities with being "structurally" racist, sexist, and class-biased, a coalition of student activists, junior faculty, and compliant administrators have imposed their own political ideals on admissions, hiring, curriculum, and even personal conduct, while eschewing the goals of liberal education.37
In light of continuing arguments over linguistics, and science, the lack of funding for independent African, Asian and Afro-American scientists is very dangerous considering the continuing refusal of science to acknowledge the African genetic basis of Europe:
European: European, Middle Eastern and South Asian populations
from the Indian subcontinent, including India, Pakistan and Sri
Real History Versus "A Good Movie"
After 1791, Haiti became the kind of key symbol in the Diaspora that Ethiopia was in Africa for the main reason that it was 'real' history with an actual black nation defeating a European one militarily and applying rhetoric successfully for its own independence. Their results were Toussaint L'Ouverture's idolization and study of the question of Haiti. The American Negro Academy published papers on The Message of St. Domingo to the African Race. Similar awareness occurred with the liberation of African studies and movements in the island, Latin America and the Pacific. Linguists, anthropologists, and archaeologists such as J.A. Rogers, Alexander Crummell and W. E. Blyden traveled to study. However, The United States has demonized both African religious survivals in Haiti and the official education stance is a particular challenge to Africanists.
Better funded social scientists are able to promote theories which determined trends in science and history.
More than 150 large temples, constructed between 4800 BC and 4600 BC, have been unearthed in fields and cities in Germany, Austria and Slovakia, predating the pyramids in Egypt by some 2,000 years, The Independent newspaper revealed… Excavations have taken place over the past three years but the discovery is so new that the civilization has not yet been named. The most complex centre discovered so far, beneath the city of Dresden in Saxony, eastern Germany, comprises a temple surrounded by four ditches, three earthen banks and two palisades.
"Our excavations have revealed the degree of monumental vision and sophistication used by these early farming communities to create Europe's first truly large scale earthwork complexes," said Harald Staeuble, from the Saxony state government's heritage department.
The temples, up to 150 metres (164 yards) in diameter, were made by a people who lived in long houses and villages, the newspaper said. Stone, bone, and wooden tools have been unearthed, along with ceramic figures of people and animals… A village at Aythra, near Leipzig in eastern Germany, was home to some 300 people living in up to 20 large buildings around the temple.39
As Runoko Rashidi, and Ivan Van Sertima, have argued, "white" is a dangerous idea that is being promoted in U.S. classrooms, particularly to African American students unaware of organizations such as ASCAC. The argument over the Sarasvati, and sudden discovery of the oppressed or crushed Black Dalits are a case in point. For example, this section from the Aryan-Dravidian controversy, on which David Frawley's work has become quite pivotal in the Western World, is interesting, especially in light of recent business theories on the Five-Races, the arguments of V.T Rajshekar, Dr. Ambedkar, and Dalit Nationalists, and the statements of Kwame Ture:
I bring you greetings from the Black people of America. I have now been in India for the last two weeks. I have visited Bihar in the North. I have just returned from Nagpur in Central India. And now I am at home with by Black brothers and sisters in Kerala. For the first time since I have been in India I feel that I have finally come to be with my family. I proudly salute the Kerala Dalit Panthers. I have been told that it is my job to inspire you, but instead I am the one who has been inspired by you.
Thousands of years ago the first men and the first women on this planet came out of Africa and they were Black people. Not only were the first people Black, but the people to develop the earliest civilizations in the world were also Black people. It is very important that we talk about the achievements of the past so that we can begin to give our people a sense of pride and dignity.
In India Black people built the earliest civilization. In Africa Black people built the earliest civilization. And then the White man came. In India you call them Aryans. In Africa we call them Europeans. The Aryans came and the Europeans came and they enslaved our people all over the world.40
About.com likewise states that the old idea of there being Aryan and Dravidian 'races was on unsound scientific theory; however, the favored new theory is just as bizarre as the Hamitic myth or Ibn Khaldun's medieval thesis:
The idea of Aryan and Dravidian races is the product of an unscientific, culturally biased form of thinking that saw race in terms of color. There are scientifically speaking, no such things as Aryan or Dravidian races. The three primary races are Caucasian, the M[o]ngolian and the Negroid. Both the Aryans and Dravidians are related branches of the Caucasian race generally placed in the same Mediterranean sub-branch. The difference between the so-called Aryans of the north and Dravidians of the south is not a racial division. Biologically both the north and south Indians are of the same Caucasian race, only when closer to the equator the skin becomes darker, and under the influence of constant heat the bodily frame tends to become a little smaller. While we can speak of some racial differences between north and south Indian people, they are only secondary. For example, if we take a typical person from Punjab, another from Maharashtra, and a third from Tamilnadu we will find that the Maharashtrians generally fall in between the other two in terms of build and skin color. We see a gradual shift of characteristics from north to south, but no real different race. An Aryan and Dravidian race in India is no more real than a north and a south European race. Those who use such terms are misusing language. We would just as well place the blond Swede of Europe in a different race from the darker haired and skinned person of southern Italy. Nor is the Caucasian race the "white" race. Caucasians can be of any color from pure white to almost pure black, with every shade of brown in between.
This is based upon a superficial identifi- cation of deities with color i.e. Krishna [w]as black and therefore Dravidian, which we have already shown the incorrectness of. In the Mahabharat, Krishna traces his lineage through the Vedic line of the Yadus, a famous Aryan people of the north and west of India, and there are instances as far back as the Rig Veda of seers whose names meant dark (like Krishna Angiras or Shyava Atreya).41
Breaking The Theological Barrier And Emancipating African Students
Let us remember that the so-called Teutonic peoples have twice attempted to destroy other 'Germanic' speaking peoples in the last century, and that their linguistic descendants are some of the greatest arms suppliers in the world. The current abusiveness at Abu Ghraib; possibly the attacks at Guantanamo; the strange promotion of blondness by a Hollywood populated by groups supposedly reeling from Hitler's attacks; the sick activities of bleached blondes on TV; and brutality by either bleached or white U.S. police officers lead to the degradation of both black female and male students in the U.S. schools. For that reason, this excerpt from Mein Kampf should be considered in light of modern realities:
No more than Nature desires the mating of weaker with stronger individuals, even less does she desire the blending of a higher with a lower race, since, if she did, her whole work of higher breeding, over perhaps hundreds of thousands of years, night be ruined with one blow.
Historical experience offers countless proofs of this. It shows with terrifying clarity that in every mingling of Aryan blood with that of lower peoples the result was the end of the cultured people. North America, whose population consists in by far the largest part of Germanic elements who mixed but little with the lower colored peoples, shows a different humanity and culture from Central and South America, where the predominantly Latin immigrants often mixed with the aborigines on a large scale. By this one example, we can clearly and distinctly recognize the effect of racial mixture. The Germanic inhabitant of the American continent, who has remained racially pure and unmixed, rose to be master of the continent; he will remain the master as long as he does not fall a victim to defilement of the blood.
The result of all racial crossing is therefore in brief always the following:
Lowering of the level of the higher race;
Physical and intellectual regression and hence the beginning of a slowly but surely progressing sickness. To bring about such a development is, then, nothing else but to sin against the will of the eternal creator.
If we were to divide mankind into three groups, the founders of culture, the bearers of culture, the destroyers of culture, only the Aryan could be considered as the representative of the first group. From him originate the foundations and walls of all human creation, and only the outward form and color are determined by the changing traits of character of the various peoples. He provides the mightiest building stones and plans for all human progress and only the execution corresponds to the nature of the varying men and races. In a few decades, for example, the entire east of Asia will possess a culture whose ultimate foundation will be Hellenic spirit and Germanic technology, just as much as in Europe. Only the outward form-in part at least-will bear the features of Asiatic character. It is not true, as some people think, that Japan adds European technology to its culture; no, European science and technology are trimmed with Japanese characteristics. The foundation of actual life is no longer the special Japanese culture, although it determines the color of life-because outwardly, in consequence of its inner difference, it is more conspicuous to the European-but the gigantic scientific-technical achievements of Europe and America; that is, of Aryan peoples.42
Theologians and the problems of divine rule
Among Africans in the Americas, Minister Farrakhan has often stated that Democracy comes from a word meaning "the rule of demons." To the best of my knowledge, no scholar has backed this to the Black community from Classical Greek, and the general definition in English dictionaries is that its roots are from demos* (the rule) and kratein (the people), ultimately meaning the rule of the people. Unless he is following George G.M. James and arguing that the Greek people are the source of 'Western Power,' such statements are difficult to understand, even in light of his beliefs that 'the people' are too ignorant to rule.43
Freeing our African and Afro-American Scholarship
For our children to lose faith in themselves and their African ancestry at a time when peoples of multiple, and distant cultural backgrounds are entering the country, is dangerous. For us to deny our Native American heritage is even worse, considering the achievements of African-descended people in the Southeast, Southwest and the St. Augustine rebellion, among other maroon communities. U.S. history rarely discusses these pre-English periods, much less successful African and "Indian" alliances or rebellions. Educators and politicians cannot forget that Afro-Americans are only a few years after white militant "violence." People of varying white-militant ties shot and killed both Medgar Evers and Dr. Martin Luther King Junior; U.S. Administration was behind the oft-referenced COINTELPRO surveillance program, behind the assassination of Black Panther Leaders, continued the Indian wars by attacking the American Indian Movement, and was at least partly responsible for the murder of El Hajji Malik El Shabazz. 44
African Americans have engaged in Pan-Africanist ideologies, whichever allowed for pro-democratic, socialist, separatist, assimilationist, and Marxist ideas; Pan-Black social thought, such as that espoused by Noble Drew Ali and The Honorable Elijah Muhammad became popular in the last century, and followed up on those expressed by Afro-American leaders since before there was a British colony. While a recognized individual may not yet have been mentioned, the numbers of survivals, show that ties to Africa remained, just as African maroons made new ties with their Native American hosts. These aspects of Black social thought have varied by class, region and experience. They have also varied based upon whether the ideas were United States, Island, Latin American or African-centric. With the European Union attempting to compete for supremacy with America, and integrate Eastern Europe and even its old enemy - Turkey, the controversy over U.S. identity is extremely important when looking at policy toward the African and Latin American continents. The same Supreme Court that issued "separate but equal" in the Plessy versus Ferguson decision is working out of what Martin Bernal, himself a student of the Radical Afrocentric School, has termed the Aryan Model. This model, which seeks to reexplain Greece in terms of German versus Greek and Hebrew points of view, explains much wrong in European thinking.
James Weldon Johnson was political himself, and 'The Negro National Anthem,' which has changed names multiple times, but is still 'Lift Every Voice and Sing' remains a challenge to study the United States, its foundations and the challenges it presents to Black people throughout the Diaspora and on the Continent. African American students, must be informed about the prevailing American perspective and the way in which the administrations of the U.S. have always sought to take the country. Parents and students are faced with the military recruitment of high school students under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA) 45 and attempts to link the controversial U.S. Peace Corps with the National Call to Service Military Recruitment Program.46
As Dr. Asa G. Hilliard III reminds us that the standards of the public school system, and the tests required by U.S. Education policy come from a certain perspective that is detrimental to the designed to denigrate the independent thought of peoples of African, Native American, southeast Asian and other perspectives. These 'minimum competencies' have repeated failed to lift African Americans, Afro and Native Americans, and Ladinos to either self-confidence, or en masse economic and politic interest in their Mother-countries.47 For this reason, when George W. Bush speaks to the EU about "mak[ing] sure for Israel that peace, security and recognition by all countries in the region are guaranteed," and that:
The United States and Europe are the two largest economies
in the world. We are determined to deepen the transatlantic
economic partnership. Trade and investment are the bedrock of
transatlantic relations. We want to build on this. Our common
objective must be to remove obstacles to transatlantic trade and
Afro-Americans must remember that "trade and investment" brought us to the Americas in the first place.
After the Revolutionary War, African Americans formed institutions like the Prince Hall Masons and AME church. These organizations fought to preserve literacy, comprehension of the articles of Confederation, Declaration of Independence and Constitution and to use these as tools to maintain both the liberty of freemen, freedmen and agitate for an end to bondage for Africans. Africans and Native Americans allied to form Seminole war parties and resist U.S. genocide.
Walter Rodney reminded us that the American society, and the capitalist society in his general assessment, developed out of a background in 'highway robbery.' While Shades of Memnon was an interesting linguistic and historical work, The Fat Albert movie promoted non-Africans helping an black child speak English properly. Why? What issues does this raise for our sons? How detrimental is it to lack strong male father-figures in the homes and then put African-American boys and girls in an environment in which their sole source of authority, much less intelligence, is non-African?
The first editorial in African America's first newspaper, New York's Freedom's Journal, was trail-breaking when it sounded the call that has continued throughout African American socio-political thought. In its premier issue of March 16, 1827, "We wish to plead our own cause. Too long have others spoken for us." The Association for the Study of Classical African Civilizations embraced controversy and policy when it issued the African World History Project text The Preliminary Challenge. It has continued that struggle by incorporating the lessons of multiple Afro-American leaders of all stripes, fighting to continue independent research encouraging collaboration among scholars of African descendent or orientation, as well as maintaining ties across the political spectrum of Black, Red, and Brown America.
1. Banneker Institute's debate of August 2, 1854
2.Garveyism and African Racial Reconstruction, Marcus Garvey, Jr. www.unia-acl.org/archive/garveyis.htm
3. Baraka, Amiri, "Somebody Blew Up America" in ChickenBones: A Journal for Literary & Artistic African-American Theme, http://www.nathanielturner.com/somebodyblewupamerica.htm ; see also " "Statement By Amiri Baraka, New Jersey Poet Laureate," "I Will Not "Apologize", I Will Not "Resign!"www.amiribaraka.com/speech100202.html,
http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/people/b/amiri_baraka/index.html?offset=30 ; see also Connerly, Ward, "Amiri Baraka Hits a New Low," The Washington Times, October 11, 2002; "Amiri Baraka: In His Own Words"; on http://www.adl.org/anti_semitism/baraka_words.asp ; Updated: July, 2003
"Amiri Baraka's numerous literary prizes and honors include fellowships from the Guggenheim Foundation and the National Endowment for the Arts, the PEN/Faulkner Award, the Rockefeller Foundation Award for Drama, the Langston Hughes Award from The City College of New York, and a lifetime achievement award from the Before Columbus Foundation. He has taught poetry at the New School for Social Research in New York, literature at the University of Buffalo, and drama at Columbia University. He has also taught at San Francisco State University, Yale University and George Washington University. Since 1985 he has been a professor of Africana Studies at the State University of New York in Stony Brook. He is co-director, with his wife, of Kimako's Blues People, a community arts space." -http://www.poets.org/poet.php/prmPID/445
4. Essays in Ancient Egyptian studies, p. 37
5. See New York Times, 4/6/95 Hate Speech and the university. Vol. 144, issue 50023, p. A30; Magner, Denise K. In a Reversal, court upholds CUNY's demotion of Afrocentrist; Chronicle of Higher education. 4/14/95, vol. 41, Issue 31, p. A23; Egyir, William. Dr Jeffries critical of City College president. New York Amsterdam News; 5/11/956'
6. see ben-Jochannan's comments in New Dimensions in African History, (New Jersey: Africa World Press, Inc.,1991), 48 and 116
7. see Introduction to the study of African Classical Civilizations, by Runoko Rashidi, London, Karnak House, 1992 reviewed by Wayne Chandler; also Asante's Journal to Liberation, and New Dimensions in African History
8. see New Directions in African Women's Studies, Dr. Valethia Watkins-Beatty; An Historical Sketch of African-Native American On-going Presence Throughout the Americas, Nomad Winterhawk; Global Dimensions in the African Diaspora: A Curriculum for the Development of Field Studies for a Viable Discipline in Africana Studies, Krystal Crawford; Challenging Politically Correct Forensics Report on Tutankhamun: What Do We Teach Our Children? Asa Hillard III; ASCAC v. the King Tut Exhibit: Dispatches from the Battlefield, Attorney Legrand Clegg, II; Deep Though: Inspiration in the African Centered School Model, Taki Raton in the ASCAC Twenty-third Annual Ancient Kemetic Studies Conference Guide.
9. Garriss, J. Russell Ed.D. and Cassandra N. Jackson. "Career Report: Teaching Our Youth: Joy That Cometh in the Morning," http://www.black-collegian.com/career/teaching.shtml; Draper, Sharon M. "A Call for Master Teachers - African American teachers - Brief Article" Essence, Jan, 2000, http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1264/is_9_30/ai_58398643/pg_2
10. Van Sertima said that: "I have never claimed that all the stone heads were African." [Early America revisited, p. 68] He further states: "De Montwellano also claims that I said the Mexicans got their calendar from the Egyptians, which is an outright falsehood, since I point to the existence of four calendars in America and merely report that claim made by Abbe Hervas to Clavigero that one of these is in conformity with an Egyptian calendar. [Early America Revisited, p. 200]
11. Sanneh, Kelefa, "After the Beginning Again: The Afrocentric Ordeal," in Transition 10:3, p. 7
12. Echewa, Thomas O. to John A. Williams, from Negro Digest, September 1965, reproduced in Walters, Ronald W. Pan Africanism in the African Diaspora, Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1993, p. 56.
13. Carruthers, Jacob H. "African Centered Education," www.nbufront.org/html/FRONTalView/ArticlesPapers/jake1.html p. 1. "The modern fabricators of the doctrine of white supremacy firmly attached the insidious argument to the concept of western civilization. The result was the creation of the idea that the white race had performed a cultural miracle and broken with the superstitious cultures of remote antiquity."
14. As is well known, she was banned from their Constitution Hall in the 1939, prompting Eleanor Roosevelt to resign and a well-attended concert at the Lincoln Memorial
15. Terborg-Penn, Rosalyn, "Free Women Entrepreneurs from the 1820's to the 1850's: Nancy Prince and Mary Seacole" in Darlene Clark and Jacqueline McLeod, eds., Crossing Boundaries, Comparative History of Black People in Diaspora, (Indiana University Press), 159-175
16. Mollie Dawson, bullwhip days, p. 427
17. "Mary Jones on the Concerns of Ex-Slaves, 1865: Mary Jones in Her Journal, 1865," in Escott, Paul D. and David R. Goldfield, eds. Major Problems in the American South. Volume One: The Old South, (Lexington, Massachusetts and Company, 1990)
18.see an analysis of Ted Koppel's statement on public radio east; http://www.publicradioeast.org/brreviewview.asp?ID=5]
19. "Racial inequality," in Michael D. Biddis, ed. Gobineau & Selected Political Writings,( Harper & Row, 1817), p. 100.
20. http://www.rawa.org/s-mazar.htm (November 13, 2001)
21. www.themodernreligion.com/jihad/afghan/npr.html and www.beautifulislam.com/ taliban/afghani_embassador_usc.]
22. http://www.rawa.org/progressive.htm. Flanders, Laura. "Afghan feminists speak out - war on terrorism, United States."
23. Watkins, Valethia. "Womanism and Black Feminism: Issues in the Manipulation of African Historiography," in The Preliminary Challenge, p. 251
24. Walters, p. 68
25. Messenger Elijah Muhammad's Teaching What Is Islam? What Is A Muslim?
Reprinted By Request from Muhammad Speaks Newspaper, July 17,1970; http://www.muhammadspeaks.com/freejustequal.html
26. my hi-lite , from "Can America exist? by the Most Honorable Elijah Muhammad"; By FinalCall.com News; Updated Apr 10, 2006, 09:36 am
27. http://www.finalcall.com/national/mlf_rabbis11-25-99.htm; WEB POSTED 11-25-1999
28. Martin, Tony. Garvey and Scattered Africa
29. Pete Johnson, p. 399, Bull Whip days
30. FADSI – First African Diaspora Studies Institute (FADSI); Martin, Tony. Garvey and Scattered Africa
31. The Association for the Study of Classical African Civilizations Atlanta Declaration
32. "Isis Unveiled," vol. I and II and "The Secret Doctrine." published by The Theosophy Company
33. Asa Hillard III; ASCAC v. the King Tut Exhibit: Dispatches from the Battlefield,
34. see "Van-Sertima Before Congress: The Columbus Myth, 1987, Legacies, 1987; Don Luke "African presence in The Early History of the British Isles and Scandinavia" quotes Godfrey Higgins, Snorri Snurrlson, Albert Churchward)
35. African Presence in Early Europe; African Presence in Early Asia; Egypt Child of Africa; Egypt Revisited; Blacks in Science, ancient and modern; African Presence in Early America
36. "William Bosman: Slave Trader writing in 1704," on Handout given by Dr. Aziz Batran in Seminar in Africa; see also "William Bosman: A New and Accurate Description of the Coast of Guinea" in Jones, Adam, Raw, medium, well done : a critical review of editorial and quasi-editorial work on pre-1885 European sources for sub-Saharan Africa, 1960-1986 (1987)
London. Pp. xxi, 509, lxvi); http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/AfricaFocus/AfricaFocus-idx?type=turn&entity=AfricaFocus000700080125&isize=text
39. LONDON (AFP) - Europe's oldest civilization has reportedly been discovered by archaeologists across the continent. http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread146833/pg1
40. "We Are One African People." Runoko Rashidi In Trivandrum, India, April 14, 1998 On The Occasion Of The Birthday Of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, http://www.cwo.com/~lucumi/triv.html
42. Mein Kampf : Volume One - A Reckoning: Chapter XI: Nation and Race
43. Saviours' Days 1996, 2001, 2005.
44. El Hajji Malik El Shabazz speaking To Alex Haley, 1965, http://www.brothermalcolm.net/mxtimeline.html
46. Kevin F. F. Quigley; President; National Peace Corps Association, President Signs FY2006 Defense Bill that Includes Peace Corps Provision, letter to RPCV's, January 10, 2006
47. Asa G. Hilliard III and Alba A. Ortiz, "The Effects of No Child left Behind Act on Diverse Learners," in Intervention in School and Clinic vol. 40, no. 2, November 2004,
48. Transcript of the press conference following the meeting of European Union
Heads of State and Government and the President of the USA, George W. Bush.
Brussels, 22 February 2005
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