Past Afrocentricity {FOOTNOTES}



In Liberator 8.1, we published an article titled "Past Afrocentricity" by Lafayette Gaston. Regrettably, we did not have the space to publish the footnotes alongside the article in the magazine. Therefore, the footnotes to that article follow below.

[1] The 'dē•ŏp' or 'jē•ŏp' pronounciations are incorrect. Diop is the Francophone representation of a Wolof name, which in Wolof is spelled Jóob (Diouf & Yagello, 2004: 18), with 'b' being the proper ending (Diop, 2003: 249), as the Francophone spelling "Diop" is erroneously transcribed with a 'p' at the end.

Diop, Cheikh M’Backé. Cheikh Anta Diop: L’Homme et l’Oeuvre. Paris: Présence Africaine, 2003: 249.

Diouf, Jean Léopold & Marina Yaguello. J’Apprends le Wolof: Damay Jàng Wolof. Paris: Karthala, 2004: 18.

[2] Spady, James G. "The Changing Perception of C.A. Diop and His Work: The Preeminence of a Scientific Spirit." In I. Van Sertima (ed.), Great African Thinkers: Cheikh Anta Diop. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books, 1992: 89-101.

Note: The interview in question was conducted by Harun Kofi Wangara (Harold G. Lawrence) and published as follows: "Interview with Cheikh Anta Diop." Black World, XXIII, no. 4 (February 1974): 53-61.

[3] Ehret, Christopher. "The African Sources of Egyptian Culture and Language." In Josep Cervelló (ed.), África Antigua: El Antiguo Egipto, una Civilizatión Africana. Actas de la IXme Semana de Estudios Africanos del Centre D’estudis Africans de Barcelona. Barcelona: Aula Aegyptiaca Fundación, 2001: 121-128.

Diop, 2003: 160-163.

[4] McCall, Daniel F. "Anteriorité des Civilisations Nègres: Mythe ou Realité Historique? by Cheikh Anta Diop." African Historical Studies, 1, No. 1(1968): 134-135.

Walker, J.D. "The Misrepresentation of Diop’s Views." Journal of Black Studies, 26, No. 1(September 1995): 77-85.

[5] Diop, Cheikh Anta. “Dr. Cheikh Anta Diop speaks at the Morehouse School of Medicine.” Atlanta, GA: Larry Williams, April 1985.

South Carolina Educational Television Network. "For the people presents an interview with Dr. Cheikh Anta Diop. Parts 1 and 2." Columbia, SC: South Carolina Educational Television, May 16, 1985.

[6] Diop, Cheikh Anta. "Vers Une Idéologie Politique Africaine." In Cheikh Anta Diop, Alterte sous les Tropiques. Paris: Présence Africaine, 1990: 45-65.

Diop, Cheikh Anta. Nations Nègres et Culture: De l’Antiquité Nègre Égyptienne aux Problèmes Cultures de l’Afrique Noire d’Aujourd’hui. Paris: Présence Africaine, 1954, 1967 & 1979: 401.

[7] Finch, Dr. Charles S. Personal Communication: August 7, 2008.

*Note: Diop’s numerous scientific achievements and political endeavors are not the subject of the present work. James G. Spady’s article (Van Sertima, 1992: 89-101) touches on his exploits. Also, in addition to the cited works below Cheikh M’Backé Diop’s work details both (2003: 31-34, 49-63, 74-83 and 110-124). For a very sound, though early, perspective on Diop’s ideological objectives, read Spady’s 1973 article.

Diop, Cheikh Anta. Le Laboratoire de Radiocarbone de l’IFAN. Catalogues et Documents, no. XXI. Dakar: Université de Dakar and L’Institut Fondamental de l’Afrique Noire, 1968.

Spady, James G. "The Cultural Unity of Cheikh Anta Diop." Black Images, I, Nos. 3-4 (1973): 14-22.

Diop, Cheikh Anta. Physique Nucléaire et Chronologie Absolute. Initiations et Études Africaines, XXXI. Dakar: Nouvelles Éditions Africaines, 1974.

Rassemblement National Démocratique. Le Combat Politique de Cheikh Anta Diop: Du B.M.S. au R.N.D. Dakar: Imprimerie du Midi, 1999.

[8] It is often noted (Van Sertima, 1992: 7; in John Henrik Clark’s forward to the translation of Civilization or Barbarism, 1991: xiii) that Diop comes from a village called Diourbel; this is incorrect. Sénégal has 10 regions: Dakar, Thies, Louga, Saint Louis, Matam, Fatick, Koalack, Tambacounda, Ziguinchor and Kolda—the latter three make up what is known as the Casamance, the former Portuguese possession, for which a border as established between Guinea-Bissau and Sénégal in 1888. To be sure, Asante’s (2007: 1) remark that Catyu was “near Diorbel,” while correct, is somewhat misleading. Each region shares the name with its capital city. Hence, Caytu is both close to the city of Diourbel, and located in the region of Diourbel. Baol is the indigenous name for the region taken from the kingdom that existed there at the time for the first Portuguese and later French/English contacts with the area.

Clark, John Henrik. "Forward." In C.A. Diop, Civilization or Barbarism: An Authentic Anthropology. Translated from the French by Yaa-Lengi Meema Ngemi. Brooklyn, NY: Lawrence Hill Books, 1991: xiii.

Van Sertima, 1992: 7.

Cheikh M’Backé Diop, 2003: 23.

Asante, Molefi Kete. Cheikh Anta Diop: An Intellectual Portrait. Los Angeles: University of Sankore Press, 2007a: 1.

[9] The two best sources of information on Diop's early life are Mama Yatassaye Ndiade’s 2003 work entitled Cheikh Anta Diop: Le Dernier des Pharaons and Cheikh Anta Diop et l'Afrique dans l'Historie du Monde (1997) by Pathe Diagne.

Cheikh M’Backé Diop does not delve much into his father’s early years.

Diop, 2003: 27, 31.

Ndiade, Mama Yatassaye. Cheikh Anta Diop: Le Dernier des Pharaons. Dakar: Éditions Tokossel, 2003.

[10] Finch, Dr. Charles S. "Meeting with the Pharaoh: Conversations with Cheikh Anta Diop." In I. Van Sertima (ed.). Great African Thinkers: Cheikh Anta Diop. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books, 1992: 28-34.

Diop, 2003: 28.

[11] Diop published two major works (1977 & 1988) on the relationship between Ancient Egyptian and his native language Wolof. He also devoted a significant portion (pgs. 287-335 of the 1979 edition of Nations Nègres et Culture) of his first major work (Nations Nègres et Culture was first published in 1954) to the subject and would go on to publish a Wolof dictionary of scientific terms and translate Einstein’s relativity theory into Wolof (first done in part in Nations Nègres et Culture, and then subsequently in 1975). In fact, Diop’s interest in language was apparent from an early age, voluntarily staying back in Quranic school an additional year at a long age. He later took up what was then craze in Baol known as Walafal, the writing of Wolof using Arabic script. This was a widespread practice throughout West Africa, and was done for other African languages in the region. (To be sure, Wolof is the word used for the language, while its speakers are referred to as Walaf). Also, during Diop’s teenage years he prepared a Wolof alphabet in addition to writing a history of Sénégal. Thus, the roots for his later intellectual achievements were clear at an early age (Ndiade, 2003: 37-54).
Diop, 1954, 1967 & 1979.

Diop, Cheikh Anta. "Comment Enraciner la Science en Afrique: Exemples Walaf (Sénégal)." Bulletin de l'Institut Fondamental de l’Afrique Noire, série B, XXXVII, n° 1(1975): 154-233

Diop, Cheikh Anta. Parenté Génétique de l’Égyptien Pharaonique et des Langues Négro-Africaines. Dakar: L’Institut Fondamental de l’Afrique Noire and Nouvelles Éditions Africaines, 1977.

Diop, Cheikh Anta. Nouvelles Recherches sur l’Égyptian et les Langues Négro-Africaines Modernes. Paris: Présence Africaine, 1988.

[12] Obenga, Théophile. Personal Communication. September 16/17, 2008.

[13] Spady, 1992: 89-101.

Diop, 2003: 31-38.

[14] The rest of the work is chapters XI-XIII of Diop’s 1967 work, Anteriorité.
Diop, Cheikh Anta. The African Origins of Civilization: Myth or Reality? New York: Hill, 1974: ix.

[15] Obenga, Théophile. Personal Communication. September 16/17, 2008.

[16] Asante, 2007: 89.

[17] Diop, 2003: 31-69.

[18] Diop, 2003: 90-91.

[19] Diop, Cheikh Anta. Apports de l’Afrique Noire à la Civilisation Universelle. Conference held in Niamey, Niger (1984).

Obenga, Dr. Théophile. Personal Communication. September 16/17, 2008.

[20] The Peopling of Ancient Egypt and the Deciphering of the Meroitic Script: Proceedings of the Symposium held in Cairo from 28 January to 3 February 1974. Paris: UNESCO, 1978.

Obenga, Théophile. Cheikh Anta Diop, Volney et Le Sphinx: Contributions de Cheikh Anta Diop à l’Histiographie Mondiale. Paris: Presénce Africaine, 1996: 225-233.

[21] Obenga’s paper was published in the proceedings (1978: 65-71), while Diop’s appeared in Volume II of the General History of Africa (1981).

Obenga, Théophile. “The Genetic Linguistic Relationship Between Egyptian (Ancient Egyptian and Coptic) and Modern Negro-African Languages.” In The Peopling of Ancient Egypt and the Deciphering of the Meroitic Script: Proceedings of the Symposium held in Cairo from 28 January to 3 February 1974. Paris: UNESCO, 1978: 65-71.

Mokhtar, G. (ed.). General History of Africa. Volume II (unabridged). Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1981: 27-82.

[22] Much of the methodology in question is laid in the African Origin of Civilization (1974).
Diop, Cheikh Anta. "Introduction à l'Étude des Migrations en Afrique Centrale et Occidentale. Identification du Berceau Nilotique du Peuple Sénégalais." Bulletin de l'Institut Fondamental de l’Afrique Noire, série B, XXXV, n° 4 (1973): 769-792.

"Symposium on the Peopling of Ancient Egypt: A Report on the Discussions." The Peopling of Ancient Egypt and the Deciphering of the Meroitic Script: Proceedings of the Symposium held in Cairo from 28 January to 3 February 1974. Paris: UNESCO, 1978: 73-103.

[23] Obenga, 1996: 226.

Obenga, Dr. Théophile. Personal Communication. September 16/17, 2008.

[24] See any comprehensive bibliography on Diop. The best two are by Cheikh M’Backé Diop (2003) and Théophile Obenga (1996).

[25] Diop was not able to see Nouvelles Recherches (1988) through to completion. He passed in 1986 and his eldest son, Cheikh M’Backé, made the book, the nearly finished manuscript of which Diop had been working on prior to making his transition, a reality. The work, however, is missing significant sections (1988: 9-13). It is thus with his caveat that we call Civilization or Barbarism Diop’s "final" work.

Finch, 1992: 28-34.

Diop, 1988: 9-13.

25a Note: Van Sertima’s Great African Thinkers (1992) is the best source of information about Diop’s visit.

[26] Spady, 1992: 89-101.

[27] Finch first left to Dakar in 1982, but did not meet Diop on this first visit. Finch was also a founding member of the Bennu Study Group, which was, along with Van Sertima, responsible for the push to get Diop to the states.

[28] According to those involved in getting Diop to the states (Finch, 1992 & 2008 and Van Sertima, 1992), Diop’s plane made it out 1,500 miles over the ocean before developing engine trouble, causing it to turn around. The plane caught fire in mid-air, which created such heat that it jammed the plane’s doors shut for 30 minutes, and came down with such force that the tires exploded. Upon landing the passengers were then rushed off the plane. This at around 4 in the morning. After the ordeal Diop, who had been involved in numerous parties that had previously placed him in opposition to Senghor and whose political activities landed him in jail on four separate occasions, was instructed by his party members not to get back on the plane until they knew for sure what had happened. Diop had wanted his ticket endorsed to board after retiring to a hotel for the evening waiting for word about repairs to the plane and it was only when this request was denied and Diop returned again to his hotel that is comrades were able to persuade him to stay home (Van Sertima, 1992). As a result, the second planning for Diop’s arrival was done in "semi" secrecy (Finch, 2008). Corresponding took place between Diop, Van Sertima and Finch, while Dr. Lawrence Edward Carter coordinated Diop’s Atlanta activities. Then Mayor Atlanta Andrew Young gave Diop 24-hour police escort and Diop was arranged to fly Delta directly from Paris to Atlanta (Finch 2008). This since flying to Paris was nothing unusual at that time for intellectuals in Francophone countries (Van Sertima, 198-). Again, Great African Thinkers (1992) provides the best available summary of Diop’s Atlanta trip.

Van Sertima, Ivan. Great African Thinkers. Cassette Tape. Highland Park, NJ: Audio Division, Journal of African Civilizations, 198-.

Van Sertima, 1992: 301-302.

Finch, Dr. Charles S. Personal Communication: August 7, 2008.

[29] Great African Thinkers, 1992: 309-320.

Finch, Dr. Charles S. Personal Communication: August 7, 2008.

[30] Special thanks here to Dean/Dr. Lawrence Edward Carter of Morehouse College, who, despite his busy schedule, took time to furnish me with a copy of Diop’s Atlanta itinerary.
Middleton’s interview with Diop, which aired in May, was conducted April 5.

Arranged by Morehouse College. Official Schedule for Professor Cheikh Anta Diop. University of Dakar. Dakar, Senegal. SPEAKING ENGAGEMENTS. 1985.

South Carolina Educational Television Network. “For the people presents an interview with Dr. Cheikh Anta Diop. Parts 1 and 2.” Columbia, SC: South Carolina Educational Television, May 16, 1985.

Great African Thinkers, 1992: 284-288.

[31] Finch, Dr. Charles S. Personal Communication: August 7, 2008.

[32] Diop, 2003: 118-120.

[33] This is Dr. Cervello Autuori’s appellation of African scholars who advocate Diop’s approach.
de Brito, Mark. "Egyptology between Africa and Europe." Cahiers Caribéens d’Égyptologie, Nos. 3-4 (Février/Mars 2002): 263-271.

[34] Diop, 2003: 89.

[35] Gray, Christopher. Conceptions of History in the Works of Cheikh Anta Diop and Theophile Obenga. London: Karnak House, 1989: 12-14.

Obenga, Théophile. Personal Communication. September 16/17, 2008.

[36] Obenga, Théophile. Origine Commune de l’Égyptien Ancien, du Copte et des Langues Negro-Africaines Modernes: Introduction à la Linguistic Histoirique Africaine. Paris: L’Harmattan, 1993.

[37] Lam, Aboubacry Mousa. De l'Origine Égyptienne des Peuls. Paris: Présence Africaine/Khepera, 1993.

[38] For example: Sall, Babacar. "Egypte et Koush (aux Origines de l’Hostilité)." Revue Senegalaise d’Histoire, No. 4-5(1999-2000): 27-39.

Sall, Babacar. "L’Apport de l’Éthiopie a l’Égypte et a la Libye." Annales de la Faculté des Lettres et Sciences Humaines de Dakar, No. 24(1994): 1-16.

Sall, Babacar. "Herkouf et les Pays de Yam." Ankh, No. 4/5(`995-1996): 57-71.

[39] For example: Sall, Babacar. "Les Grecs et l’Égypte (Géographie et Idéologie)." Annales de la Faculté des Lettres et Sciences Humaines de Dakar, No. 14(1984): 261-273.

Sall, Babacar. "Des Influences Éthiopiennes sur l’Europe Méridionale." Ankh, No. 1(1992): 41-49.

[40] Sall, Babacar. Racines Éthiopiennes de l'Égypte Ancienne. Khepera/L’Harmattan, 1999.

[41] See various articles published in Ankh.

[42] Lam, Aboubacry Moussa. Personal Communication. May 25, 2007.

Obenga, Théophile. Personal Communication. September 16/17, 2008

[43] Coovi-Gomez, Jean Charles. "Étude Comparée de l’Écriture Sacrée du Danxomé et des Hiéroglyphes de l’Ancienne Égypte." Ankh, No. 1(1992): 59-78.

[44] Note: There are likely other schools around the continent. Those listed are the ones the author is familiar with.

Lam, Aboubacary Moussa. Personal Communication. 2007.

[45] Lam, Aboubacry Moussa. Personal Communicaiton. May 25, 2007.

[46] Sy, Souleymane Diam. "Université Cheikh Anta Diop: Bientôt un Institut d’Égyptologie." Le Soleil, May 13, 2008. Retrieved June 27, 2008 from http://fr.allafrica.com.stories/200805130918.html.

[47] At present UCAD offers a PhD. in Egyptology through the History Department, but all essential research is done abroad due to resource issues.

Sall, Babacar. Personal Communication (via email). July 18, 2008.

[48] Moore, Shawna. "Interview with Cheikh Anta Diop." In Van Sertima, 1992: 238-248.

[49] Diop, 2003: 69-70 & 155-164.

[50] Finch "Further Conversations with the Pharaoh." In Van Sertima, 1992: 225-237.

[51] Diop, 1990: 141.

We must correct our characterization of Diagne as Diop’s “political opponent.” Dr. Diagne was formally as member of the Parti Africain pour l’Indépendance (PAI) during the 1960s until undertaking independent political activity while Diop was in the Bloc des Masses Sénégalaises (BMS). However, in 1976, with the founding of the RND, Diagne joined along with Diop when Babacar Niang, Amadou Tidiane Baidy Ly, Moustapha Diallo and Seyni Niang asked Diop to be the head of the party. Diagne also stayed with Diop when the RND split after the 1983 elections. Diagne has said “I have not opposition to Cheikh Anta, neither intellectually, nor in the domain of politics” (ni sur la plaine intelletuelle, ni sur la plaine politique). In fact, Diop and Diagne had known each other since 1959/1960 and Diagne had supported Diop in articles written in Présence Africaine prior to that time, going on to pursue questions inspired in part by Diop’s work in his own research.

(Rene Lake, Dame Babou and Pathé Diagne, personal communication, 2009)

[52] No author. "Les 50 Ans de Nations Nègres et Culture de Cheikh Anta Diop, les 30 Ans du Colloque d’Égyptologie du Caire." Ankh, No. 12/13(2003-2004): 10-11.

Finch, Charles S. Personal Communication. August 20, 2008.

[53] Diop, 2003: 155-164.

Finch, Dr. Charles S. Personal Communication. August 7, 2008.

[54] Obenga, 1973.

Dieng, Aly Amady. "Hommage à Cheikh Anta Diop, 1923-1986: Un Bilan Critique de l'Oeuvre de Cheikh Anta Diop." Revue Canadienne des Études Africaines, 23, No. 1(1989): 151-157.

Lam, 1993.

Obenga, 1996: 88.

[55] Van Sertima, 1992.

[56] Obenga, Théophile. Personal Communication. September 16/17, 2008.

[57] Diop, 1984: 42nd minute.

[58] Asante, Molefi Kete. Afrocentricity. Trenton, NJ: African World Press, 1988: 6.

[59] Asante, 1987: 4.

[60] Note Appiah’s demonstration in the irony of Kiswahili as a choice. Appiah, 1997: 728-731.

[61] Asante, 1988: 21-22.

[62] Asante, 1988: 109-120.

[63] Asante, 1988: 49-58.

[64] Asante, Molefi Kete. The Afrocentric Idea. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1987: vii.

[65] Asante, 1988: ix-x.

[66] Asante, 2007: 81-114.

[67] Jewsiewicki, Bogumil. "Conceptions of History in the Works of Cheikh Anta Diop and Théophile Obenga." The International Journal of African Historical Studies, 28, No. 1(1995): 214-215.

Obenga, Théophile. La Sens de la Lutte contre l’Africanisme Eurocentriste. Paris: L’Harmattan, 2001: 46.

[68] Lefkowitz, Mary. "Not Out of Africa: The Origins of Greece and the Illusions of Afrocentrists." New Republic(Febrary 1992): 29-36.

[69] Lefkowitz, Mary. Not Out of Africa: How Afrocentrism Became an Excuse to Teach Myth as History. New York: BasicBooks, 1996.

[70] Asante, Molefi Kete. "On the Wings of Nonsense: The Attack on Afrocentricity." Black Books Bulletin, 16, nos. 1-2(1993-1994): 37-40.

[71] Asante, Molefi Kete. "The Many Fallacies of Mary Lefkowitz: Attacks on Afrocentrism are as Weak as They are False." Emerge(July 1996): 66-70.

[72] Asante, Molefi Kete. The Painful Demise of Eurocentrism: An Afrocentric Response to Critics. Trenton, NJ: African World Press, 1999.

[73] Asante, 1996: 66-70.

Asante, 1999.

[74] Asante, 1993-1994: 37-40.

[75] Asante, 1993-1994: 37-40.

[76] According to Lefkowitz, she had read Asante’s 1990 work Kemet, Afrocentricity and Knowledge prior to writing the New Republic article.

Lefkowitz, Mary. Personal Communication. August 21, 2008.

[77] See the paragraph on the top-right in Asante (1993-1994): 38.

[78] Asante, 1999.

[79] Asante, 1993-1994: 37-40.

[80] Asante, Molefi Kete. Personal Communication. August 10, 2008.

[81] Asante, 1996: 66-70.

[82] King, Leophus S. Philomythy: Afrocentric Analysis of the Plausible Kemetic Influences on and Resonated Kemetic Retentions in Greek Creation Stories. Doctoral Dissertation. Temple University (2003).

[83] For another illustration of this, see the following, which can be found on the internet and contains only lay references to hieroglyphic writings of the words Kmt and Dšrt, along with few other substantive arguments: Asante, Molefi Kete. "Contesting African History: Assumptions and Claims of Eurocentric Historians,"available online at http://www.asante.net/articles/contesting-Kemet.html.

[84] Wangara, 1973: 53-61.

[85] Arranged by Morehouse College. Official Schedule for Professor Cheikh Anta Diop. University of Dakar. Dakar, Senegal. SPEAKING ENGAGEMENTS. 1985.

Van Sertima, 1992: 238-248.

[86] Asante, 1987: 4.

Asante, Molefi Kete. "The Afrocentric Idea in Education." Journal of Negro Education, 60, no. 2 (1991): 170-180.

Asante, 1993-1994: 37-40.

Asante, 1996: 66-70.

Asante, Molefi Kete. "Analytic Afrocentricity. Afrocentricity and the Eurocentric Hegemony of Knowledge: Contradictions of Place." Current Perspectives in Social Theory, 22(2003): 61-70.

[87] Asante, 1996: 66-70.

[88] It is also interesting to note this in the face of numerous African oral traditions linking themselves to the homeland of Islam. As an example, take the Songhai legend about Zuwā Yāsiboy (Hunwick, 2003: 5-8). Compare this to Asante’s assertion that Afrocentrists see through attempts to rewrite Greek history rather than taking as truth what the Greeks wrote themselves (1996: 66-70), particularly in light of Lam’s (1997: 156-159) hypothesis with regards to Songhai origins.

Asante, Karimu & Molefi Asante. "Great Zimbabwe: An Ancient African City." Journal of African Civilizations. Blacks in Science: Ancient and Modern, 5, Nos. 1-2(April & November 1983): 84-91.

Asante, 1996: 66-70.

Obenga, 1996: 17-44.

Lam, Aboubacry Moussa. Les Chemins du Nil: Les Relations entre l’Égypte Ancienne et l’Afrique Noire. Paris: Présence Africaine, 1997: 156-159.

Hunwick, John. Timbuktu and the Songhay Empire: Al-Sa’Di’s Ta’Rikh Al-Sudan Down to 1613 and Other Contemporary Documents. Boston: Brill, 2003: 5-8.

[89] Asante, 1996: 66-70.

[90] Hunwick, 2003: 5-8.

[91] Obenga, 1996: 17-44.

[92] Lam, 1993.

Lam, 1997: 156-159.

[93] Asante, Molefi Kete. The History of Africa: The Quest for Eternal Harmony. New York: Routledge, 2007b.

[94] Currey, James. General History of Africa, Volume IV. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1997: 60

[95] Obenga, Théophile. "Les Derniers Remparts de l’Africanisme." Présence Africaine, 157(1988): 47-65.

[96] Diop, 1954: 198-203, 356-357

[97] Diop, Cheikh Anta. "Histoire Primitive de l’Humanité: Évolution du Monde Noir." Bulletin de l’Institut Fondamental de l’Afrique Noire, XXIV, séries B, Nos. 3-4(1962): 449-574.

[98] Diop, 1991.

[99] Obenga, 2001: 46-48 & 74.

[100] Asante, 1996: 66-70.

[101] Asante. 2007a: xi-xii, 34-36 & 90-114.

[102] McCall, 1968: 134-135.

[103] Spady, 1992: 89-101.

[104] Asante, 1993-1994: 37-40.

[105] Compare, for example, the admission Lefkowitz makes on page 30 (columns 2 and 3) of the (1992) New Republic article to Asante’s assertions made on page 38 (1993-1994; 2nd column), in addition to his page 40 remark that “Whites do not have the monopoly on intelligence.”

[106] Obenga, 2001: 23-41.

[107] Asante, 1987.

[108] Asante, 1988: 70.

[109] To be clear, Carr’s use of the term “orientation” seems to expand on ya Azibo’s (1992) definition, which is constricted to group identification.

Carr, Greg Kimathi. African Philosophy of History in the Contemporary Era: Its Antecedents and Methodological Implications for the African Contribution to World History. Doctoral Dissertation. Temple University (April 10, 1998): 125-127.

[110] Asante, 1988: 70.

[111] Asante, 1988: 21.

[112] Asante, 1987: 71.

[113] Carr, 1998: 118.

[114] Carr, 1998: 114.

[115] Williams, Chancellor. The Destruction of Black Civilization: Great Issues of a Race from 4500 B.C. to 2000 A.D. Chicago: Third World Press, 1979.

[116] Rodney, Walter. A History of the Upper Guinea Coast, 1545-1800. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970: vii-ix.

[117] Mazama, Ama. "The Afrocentric Paradigm." In Ama Mazama (ed.) The Afrocentric Paradigm. Trenton : Africa World Press, 2002: 3-34.

[118] Not all of Stewart’s critiques of Asante stick though. For instance, Asante has specifically stated that he does not subscribe to the theory about the particularity of melanin (Asante, 2007: 101-102).

Stewart, James B. "Reaching for Higher Ground: Toward an Understanding of Black/Africana Studies." In John Conyers (ed.), Africana Studies: A Disciplinary Quest for both Method and Theory. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co., 1997: 108-129.

Asante, 2007a: 101-102.

[119] ya Azibo, Daudi Ajani. "Articulating the Distinction Between Black Studies and the Study of Blacks: The Fundamental Role of Culture and African-Centered Worldview." The Afrocentric Scholar, 1, No. 1 (May 1992): 64-97.

[120] Asante, 1999: 3.

[121] Carr, 1998: 112-149.

Beatty, Mario. Personal Communication. August 15, 2008.

[122] Obenga, 2001: 75.

[123] Diop, Cheikh Anta. Black Africa: The Cultural and Economic Basis for a Federated State. Trenton, NJ: Lawrence Hill Books, 1987: 117-124.

[124] Asante, Molefi Kete. "Afrocentricity and Negritude: Two African Perspectives." The Palestine Review (Summer 1980): 5-6.

Asante, 1988: 70.

[125] Carr, 1998: 118.

[126] Asante, Molefi Kete. Kemet, Afrocentrcity and Knowledge. Trenton, NJ: African World Press, 1990: 12.

[127] Diop, 2003: 31-39.

[128] Carr, 1998: 120.

[129] Obenga, 2001: 16 & 42-43.

Obenga, Théophile. Personal Communication. September 16/17, 2008.

[130] Diop, "Vers une Idéologie." In Diop, 1990: 45-65.

[131] Carr, 1998: 131-132.

[132] Diop, 1984.

[133] Asante, Molefi Kete and Abu S. Barry. African Intellectual Heritage: A Book of Sources. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1996.

[134] Asante, Molefi Kete. The Egyptian Philosophers: Ancient African Voices from Imhotep to Akhenaten. Chicago: Afircan American Images, 2000.

[135] Williams, Bruce Beyers. "A Prospectus for Exploring the Historical Essence of Ancient Nubia," in W. V. Davies (ed.), Egypt and Africa. London: British Museum Publications in association with the Egypt Exploration Society, 1991: 74-91. Also published in Ankh, No. 6/7(1997-1998): 91-120.

Garcea, E.E.A. Cultural Dynamics in the Saharo-Sudanese Prehistory. Rome: Gruppo Editoriale Internazionale, 1993: 148-150.

Williams, Bruce B. “New Light on Relations Between Early Egypt and Sudan.” Cahiers Caribéens d’Egyptologie, No. 1(February/March 2000): 5-19.

Gatto, Maria Carmela. "The Early A-Group in Lower Nubia, Upper Egypt and the Surrounding Deserts." in Lech Krzyżaniak (ed.), Archaeology of Early Northeastern Africa. Poznań: Poznań Archaeological Museum, 2006: 223-234.

[136] Hendrickx, Stan. "La Chronologie de la Préhistoire Tardive et des Débuts de l’Histoire de l’Egypte." Archéo-Nil, No. 9(1999): 13-81.

[137] Also, black-topped red ware is not unique to the Naqada phases, and shows up, though in small quantities during the preceding Badarian (Brunton & Caton-Thompson, 1928: 20-23).

Brunton, G. and G. Caton-Thompson. The Badarian Civilisation. London: British School of Archaeology in Egypt, 1928: 20-23.

Midant-Reynes, Beatrix. The Prehistory of Egypt: From the First Egyptians to the First Pharaohs. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 2001: 69-99.

Kuper, Rudolph, et al. "Climate-Controlled Holocene Occupation the Sahara: Mother of African’s Evolution." Science, 313(August 11, 2006): 803-807.

[138] Asante, 2007b: 21-23.

[139] Edwards, David N. The Nubian Past: An Archaeology of the Sudan. New York: Routledge, 2004: 75-111.

[140] Asante, 2007b: 48-59.

[141] Asante, 2007b: 63-65.

[142] The Index, known as KRI, is a complete compilation of all hieroglyphic inscriptions recorded during the Ramesside Period and contains a annotated translations in a separate volume.

[143] Asante, 2007b: 118-124.

[144] Asante, 2007b: 137-142.

[145] Es-Sadi, Abderrahman. Tarikh es-Soudan. Traduit de l’Arabe par O. Houdas. Paris: Librairie d’Amerique et d’Orient, 1964.

[146] Hunwick, 2003.

[147] Diop, 1987: 48-158.

[148] Asante, 2007a: 81-114.

[149] Smith, Arthur Lee, Jr. Samuel Adams’ Agitational Rhetoric of Revolution. Doctoral Dissertation. University of California (1968).

[150] Asante, 1987: 11-16.

[151] Asante, Molefi Kete. African and African American Communication Continuities. Buffalo: Council of International Studies, 1975.

Also see www.asante.net for a bibliography.

King, 2003.

[152] Asante, 1987: 4.

Asante, 1988: 38-43.

Asante, 1990: 12-14.

[153] Trigger, Bruce. "Meroitic and Eastern Sudan: A Linguistic Relationship?" Kush, XII(1964): 188-194.

Leclant, Jean. "The Present Position in the Deciphering of Meroitic Script." In The Peopling of Ancient Egypt and the Deciphering of the Meroitic Script: Proceedings of the Symposium held in Cairo from 28 January to 3 February 1974. Paris: UNESCO, 1978.

[154] Asante, 1987: 4.

Asante, 1988: 38-43.

Asante, 1990: 12-14.

[155] Gomez, 1996: 114-134 & 150.

[156] Diop, "Vers une Idéologie." In Diop, 1990: 45-65.

[157] Obenga, 1988: 47-65.

Obenga. Personal Communication. September 16/17, 2008.

[158] Diop, 2003: 31-38.

[159] Diop, 1984.

[160] Diop, Cheikh Anta. "Une Continent à la Recherche de son Histoire." In Diop, Alerte sous les Tropiques. Paris: Presence Africaine, 1990: 115-122.

[161] Obenga, 1996: 71-93 & 107-122

[162] Obenga, 2001: 46.

Beatty, Mario. Personal Communication. October 19, 2008.

[163] Diop, 1974: ix.

[164] Diop, 2003: 31-33.

[165] Diop, 1973: 769-792.

[166] Lam, Aboubacry Moussa. "Au-dèla de l’Incertitude: Les Armes pour des Conclusions Scientifquement Établies dans le Domaine des Rapprochements entre l’Egypte Ancienne et l’Afrique Noire." In Lam, Le Sahara ou La Vallée du Nil? Aperçu sur la Problématique bu Berceau de l’Unité Culturelle de l’Afrique Noire. Dakar: IFAN, 1994:1-16.

Lam. "L’Égyptien et la Clarification de l’Origine des Populations Sénégambiennes." In Lam, 1994: 17-32.

Lam, 1997.

Lam, "Les Relations entre l’Égypte Ancienne et le Reste de l’Afrique ala Lumière des Données de la Civilisation Matérielle et des Traditions Orales." In Lam, La Vallée du Nil Berceau de l’Unité Culturelle de l’Afrique Noire. Dakar: Presses Universitaires de Dakar, 2006: 41-66.
Lam. "Sources Iconographiques en Égyptologie: Importances et Usages." In Lam, 2006: 89-102.

[167] Obenga, 1993 & 2001.

[168] Diop, 1984.

[169] Diop, 2003: 175-225.

[170] Obenga, 1996: 235-304.

[171] See various of Diop’s lecture/sit-ins at Morehouse, particularly those given at Morehouse School of Medicine (4/8/1985) and in MLK, Jr. International Chapel (4/9?/1985).

Diop, 1991: 61-65.

[172] Hommage du Cameroun au Professeur Cheikh Anta Diop. Dakar: Éditions Panafrika, 2006.

[173] Garcea, 1993: 148-150.

Garcea, E.A.A. "From Khartoum to the Saharan Neolithic: Ceramics in Comparison." in Actes de la VIIIe Conférence Internationale d’Études Nubiennes. Lille, 11-17 Septembre 1994. Villeneuve-d'Ascq: Université Charles de Gaulle-Lille III, 1997: 91-104.

Kuper, 2006: 803-807.

[174] Gambier, Dominique. "Le Peuplement de la Vallée du Nil au Paleolithique Supérieur." Archéo-Nil, No.2(October 1992): 71-78.

Midant-Reynes, 2001.

[175] Brunton & Caton-Thompson, 1928: 20 & fig.8.

Arkell, A.J. Shaheinab: An Account of the Excavation of a Neolithic Occupation Site Carried out for the Sudan Antiquities Service in 1949-50. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1953: __.

Nordström, Hans-Åke. Neolithic and A-Group Sites, Volume 3. Stockholm: Scandinavian University Books, 1972: 14-15 & 28-30

Williams, Bruce B. The University of Chicago Oriental Institute Nubia Expedition, Part 1. Chicago: Oriental Institute of Chicago, 1986: 13, 30 & 106.

Gatto, Maria Carmela. "Ceramic Traditions and Cultural Territories: The Nubian A-Group in Prehistory." Sudan & Nubia, 6(2002): 8-19.

[176] Petrie, W.M.F. Diospolis Parva. London: Special Extra Publication of the Egypt Exploration Fund, 1901.

Reisner, George A. Archaeological Survey of Nubia. Report for 1907-8, Volumes I & II. Cairo: Government Press, 1910.

Firth, C.M. Archaeological Survey of Nubia. Report for 1908-1909, Volumes I & II. Cairo: Government Press, 1912: 9-11.

Junker, Hermann. Bericht über die Grabungen auf def Friedhofen von El-Kubanieh Süd, Winter 1910-11. Vienna: Alfred Holder, 1919: 53-43.

Brunton & Caton-Thompson, 1928: 20-25.

Arkell, A.J. Early Khartoum: an Account of the Excavation of an Early Occupations Site Carried out by the Sudan Government Antiquities Service in 1944-5. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1949: 85.

Arkell, 1953: 75, 84-84 & pl. 34.

Chilodnick, M. "Ceramics from the Neolithic Cemetery at Kadero." Archéologie du Nil Moyen, 2(1987): 141-148.

Wendorf, Fred. "Nabta Playa and Its Role in Northeastern African Prehistory." Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 17 (1998): 97-123.

Fattovich, Rodolfo. "The Gash Group of the Eastern Sudan: An Outline." Krzyżaniak, L., et al. (eds.). in Environmental Change and Human culture in the Nile Basin and Northern African until the Second Millennium B.C. Poznán: Poznán Archaeological Museum, 1993: 439-448.

Reinold, Jacques. "Kadruka and the Neolithic in the Northern Dongola Reach." Arkamani: Sudan Electronic Journal of Archaeology and Anthropology(August 2002). Retrieved March 15, 2008 from: http://www.arkamani.org/arkamani-library/neolithic/jak1.htm.

Gatto, Maria Carmela. "Prehistoric Nubian Ceramic Tradition: Origin, Developments and Spreading Trajectories." Caneva, Isbella & Alassandro Roccati (eds.). in Acta Nubica. Proceedings of the X International Conference of Nubian Studies. Rome 9-14, September 2002. Rome: Institutu Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato, 2006: 103-106.

[177] Williams, Bruce B. "New Light on Relations Between Early Egypt and Sudan." Cahiers Caribéens d’Egyptologie, no. 1, Février/Mars 2000: 5-19.

Gatto, 2002: 8-19.

[178] Reisner, 1910.

Firth, 1912.

Junker, 1919.

Arkell, 1953: 49-50.

Geus, Francis. "El-Kadada, un civilisation du 4eme millénaire sur les rives du Nil soudanais." Archéologia, 170 (1982): 24-33.

Reinold, Jacques. "Les Fouilles Pre- et Proto-Historiques de la Section Française de la Direction des Antiquités du Soudan: Les Campagnes 1984-85 et 1985-86." Archéologie du Nil Moyen, 2 (1987): 17-60.

Krzyżaniak, Lech. "Kadero: Preliminary Report, 1993." Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, V (1994): 111-114.

[179] For a summary see Williams, 1991: 74-91.
Wengrow, David. The Archaeology of Early Egypt: Social Transformations in North-East Africa, 10,000 to 2650 B.C. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006: 41-62.

[180] Sanders, Edith. "The Hamitic Hypothesis: Its Origin and Functions in Timer Perspective." Journal of African History, 10, No. 4(1969): 521-532.

[181] Trigger, Bruce. "Nubian, Negro, Black or Nilotic?" in S. Hochfield & E. Riefstahl (eds.), Africa in Antiquity, Volume I: The Arts of Ancient Nubia and the Sudan. Brooklyn: The Brooklyn Museum, 1978: 27-35.

[182] Obenga, 1993.

[183] Asante, 1988: 70.

[184] Gomez, 1996.

[185] Franklin, John Hope. From Slavery to Freedom. Third Edition. New York: Vintage Books, 1969.

[186] Asante, 1988: 79 & 82-84.